The Italian building stock is responsible for about 25% of its direct greenhouse gas emissions and accounts for almost 50% of the region’s total energy end-use demand, with around 70% of the energy demand used for winter heating and summer air-conditioning. Most of this heat is provided by fossil fuels, with natural gas as the main energy source (it covers 50% of final energy demand). Reducing the energy consumption of our buildings will support meeting climate goals, but also will help Italy, and Europe, in shifting from foreign gas imports: Buildings are the largest users of gas, with more than 40% of the gas consumed in Italy used in buildings. People spend about 90% of their time inside buildings. Therefore, decarbonising buildings must put people and communities at the centre, in order to empower them to live and work in comfortable and healthy buildings, improving their quality of life. The Building Programme will analyse the challenge for the Italian building stock, particularly inefficient and aging, highlighting the need to more effectively address public resources toward energy efficiency and end-use electrification, as leverage for private investment. The work will bring out the opportunities for a just transition for the construction sector and all related supply chains.